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Using wood pellets (pellets) as an alternative source of energy for home heating.

Using wood pellets (pellets) as an alternative source of energy for home heating.


Around the world, they are gradually moving to the use of alternative energy sources. One of the types of such fuel is wood pellets. They are obtained by drying and pressing wood processing waste - shavings, chips, sawdust, etc. It is an environmentally friendly type of fuel that does not contain any chemical impurities.


An important advantage is a high calorific value: it has been established that the burning of 1 ton of wood pellets produces the same amount of energy as the complete combustion of 1.6 tons of wood, 480 cubic meters of gas, or 500 liters of diesel fuel. Due to this, pellet heating appears to be more economical than, for example, wooden heating. When wood pellets are used as fuel, the emission of sulfur dioxide (dioxide) decreases, and this, in turn, leads to a decrease in acid rain and to a decrease in forest loss.

The experience of European countries in the use of pellets demonstrates the effectiveness of this type of fuel from the point of view of the heating function, as well as the economic feasibility of its use. Perhaps, the most powerful argument in favor of pellet heating can be called its complete automation and ease of use. Pellet boilers and fireplaces are devices capable of working without human intervention. The fuel supply is automatic, and thanks to the "reasonable" fuel consumption, one load of pellets can last for several days. Pellet boilers and fireplaces do not require constant maintenance, for example, daily ash removal, as most modern models have an automatic cleaning function. You need to clean the ash in the pellet boiler about once a month.


The main structural elements of a solid fuel boiler on pellets are a furnace, a retort, a torch or a burner with movable grates, a hopper, as well as an automation system. A special screw conveyor delivers fuel from the hopper to the furnace, where pellets are ignited. The ignition method depends on the boiler model and can be either automated or manual:


1) Automatic ignition - an electric fan directs a stream of hot air to the pellets, causing them to ignite;


2) Manual ignition - pellets are poured with gel (do not use flammable liquid such as gasoline, acetone, etc.) and ignited with matches or a gas lighter.


After reaching the set temperature, the automatic system is activated, the auger stops the fuel supply, and the air damper limits the access of air to the combustion chamber. After the temperature drops below the set norm, the operation of the pellet boiler resumes. When entering the calculation mode, the temperature of the retort burner can reach 1200 ° C, and since it contains a sufficient supply of pellets, the fuel supply is resumed after a few hours.


Technical characteristics of pellets:

• Total moisture for the working condition of the fuel - No more than 10%;

• Ash content in the dry state of the fuel - No more than 1.5%;

• Total sulfur in the dry state of the fuel - No more than 0.4%;

• Length - From 3 mm to 40 mm;

• Diameter - From 6 mm to 8 mm;

• Higher heat of combustion for the working condition of the fuel - 5000 kcal;

• Lower calorific value of fuel at working condition - 4100 kcal.

Again, from the experience of European countries, we can say what is universal. It is used both for servicing district boiler houses and in private sectors. In fact, this biofuel can not only be used as an alternative to gas and firewood, but also show higher energy supply results. By the way, fuel pellets are actively used in regions where there is no stable supply of gas networks. Autonomous heating of the house with pellets provides significant advantages for remote cottage villages. In addition to the heating function, pellets are able to perform the task of eliminating liquid products. This is due to their use as fillers for toilets of domestic animals, as well as in the elimination of emergency areas during flooding.

1597 23/10/2019
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